乳中游離指肪酸、脂肪酸測定之應用(2)

例如提高泌乳牛飼糧芻料比例就可以降低n-6/n-3比例 (Patel et al., 2013)。添加魚油也可以降低 n-6/n-3比例 (Palmquist and Griinari,2006)。事實上,善加利用魚油與葵花油組合,除了會降低n-6/n-3比例之外,還可以提高牛乳中共軛亞麻油酸 (conjugated linoleic acid, CLA)含量。已經有試驗證明CLA對人類可以有減肥功效 (Blankson et al.,2000; Gaullier et al.,2004; Steck et al., 2007)。將來若有乳品公司要推一個具有特殊機能性的鮮乳或乳製品新產品,就可以借助這方面知識。乳牛乳腺可以自行合成4碳到16碳脂肪酸 (Palmquist,2006),其中,中鏈脂肪酸(8-10碳)對人類也有減肥功效 (Takeuchi et al.,2008),如果我們少用脂肪粉餵泌乳牛,可以鼓勵乳腺多自行合成脂肪酸 (Palmquist, 2006)。同樣一個鮮乳,如果可以向消費者宣稱同時具備CLA與中鏈脂肪酸,應該會吸引消費者青睞。

參考文獻:
1.Adler, S.A. and A.T. Randby. 2007. The effect of fish meal or pea meal on milk fatty acid composition in organic farming. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 16 (Suppl. 1):79–83.
2.Blankson, H., J. A. Stakkestad, H. Fagertun, E. Thom, J. Wadstein, O. Gudmundsen. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. Journal of Nutrition 130: 2943–8.
3.Cartier, P and Y. Chilliard. 1989. Lipase redistribution in cows' milk during induced lipolysis: I. Activation by agitation, temperature change, blood serum and heparin. Journal of Dairy Research 56:699-709.
4.Chilliard, Y., A. Ferlay, J. Rouel, and G. Lamberet. 2003. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis. J. Dairy Sci. 86:1751–1770.
5.Gaullier, J.-M., J. Halse, K. Høye, K. Kristiansen, H. Fagertun, H. Vik, and O. Gudmundsen. 2004. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79:1118 –25.
6.Klei, L. R., J. M. Lynch, D. M. Barbano, P. A. Oltenacu, A. J. Lednor, and D. K. Bandler. 1997. Influence of milking three times a day on milk quality. J. Dairy Sci. 80:427-436.
7.Lo´pez-Lo´pez, A., MC Lo´pez-Sabater, C Campoy-Folgoso, M Rivero-Urgell and AI Castellote-Bargallo. 2002. Fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in human milk from Granada (Spain) and in infant formulas. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56:1242–1254.

8.Markiewicz-Kęszycka, M., G. Czyżak-Runowska, P. Lipińska, and J. Wójtowski. 2013. Fatty acid profile of milk - a review. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 57:135-139.
9.Palmquist, D.L. 2006. Milk fat: origin of fatty acids and influence of nutritional factors thereon.  In: Advanced Dairy Chemistry, Volume 2: Lipids, 3rd edition. Edited by P.F. Fox and P.L.H. McSweeney, Springer, New York. Pp.43-92.
10.Palmquist, D.L. and J.M. Griinari. 2006. Milk fatty acid composition in response to reciprocal combinations of sunflower and fish oils in the diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology 131:358–369.
11.Patel , M., E. Wredle , and J. Bertilsson. 2013. Effect of dietary proportion of grass silage on milk fat with emphasis on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 96:390–397.
12.Puppel, K., T. Nałęcz-Tarwacka, B. Kuczyńska, M. Gołębiewski and M. Kordyasz. 2013. Effect of different fat supplements on the antioxidant capacity of cow’s milk.  Archiv Tierzucht 56 (17):178-190.
13.Steck, S. E., A. M. Chalecki, P. Miller, J. Conway, G. L. Austin, J. W. Hardin, C. D. Albright, and P. Thuillier. 2007. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. Journal of Nutrition 137(5): 1188–1193.
14.Takeuchi, H., S. Sekine, K. Kojima and T. Aoyama. 2008. The application of medium-chain fatty acids: edible oil with a suppressing effect on body fat accumulation. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 17 (S1):320-323.
15.Thomson, N. A., W. C. van der Poel, M. W. Woolford, and M. J. Auldist. 2005. Effect of cow diet on free fatty acid concentrations in milk. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 48:301-310.